Monday, April 11, 2011

Makalah Bahasa Inggris - Teacher Education In Perspective Of Inclusion

 Tugas Makalah Bahasa Inggris

One of the most evident as a possible obstacle to the effective inclusion of children with disabilities in regular education, is the lack of preparation of teachers and, specifically, the lack of an education based on the assumptions of inclusive education.

If the school enrollment brings a new paradigm of education, it is essential that teacher training is also directed in that perspective. As the teacher can have an inclusive practice, if in the process of training had no contact and was not aware about this new way of thinking about the differences?

The proper course of education brings with it the germ of segregation, and historically constructed by the separation of a pedagogy for the "normal" and a pedagogy for the "different", as can be seen in the positioning of Cartolano, who says:

Special education has been formed, usually as part of the curriculum content of basic, common, educator, is often seen as a special training reserved for those who wish to work with students with "special needs", different individuals divergent social disabilities. (1998, p. 30)

This way differentiated training has enhanced the deletion, delegating some specific knowledge, which in turn is aimed at specific institutions, separate from social context. There was a deletion in the institutionalization of care for individuals with disabilities, producing two types of teachers and education in dichotomizing the "normal" and "special", with total disconnection between themselves. This fact creates a scenario in which teachers who work in the regular classroom can not act with children with disabilities, and teachers who work in the class "special" can not act in the regular classroom. Concerning this the author points out that:

(Cartolano, 1998, p. 38)

Pietro, as Cartolano, also advocates a teacher training covering the principles of inclusion when he says that "knowledge about teaching students with special educational needs can not be the domain of only a few" experts ", but appropriate for the greatest number education professionals as possible, ideally by all "(2006, p. 58).

Thus, it is urgent a broad discussion on the initial and continuing training of teachers under the aegis of inclusive education in order to bridge the gap between its purpose and its effectiveness, since without the teacher's engagement as there is qualitative way of effecting this new philosophy of looking at the difference. Glimpses a new teacher profile, defended by Ferreira, said:

It is expected that today the teacher is able to understand and practice the diversity reception and is open to innovative practices in the classroom. In the new profile, the teacher must acquire knowledge about how to know the characteristics (skills, needs, interests, experiences, etc ...) from each of the students, in order to plan lessons that take into account such information. (2006, p. 231)

Thus, it is evident that no change of attitude, which should be made possible since the initial training could be done to include a meaningful way. Therefore, it is necessary to eliminate the stuffiness of a traditional training, which has at its core principles based on homogeneity, in which the teacher is compelled to see the student without an identity, so that their practice does not meet the demands of each , students with and without disabilities. As the author says:

The inclusive class seeks to meet the diverse learning styles in the classroom, so any action development and improvement of teaching and learning practices for the inclusion of teachers should help them to reflect on ways of gathering information about his / its / s student (a) is planning several activities covering the individual learning styles.

(FERREIRA, 2006, p. 231)

So what is proposed is a teacher education that embraces the diversity, which requires leaving behind some old formulas, because these do not correspond to the range of different situations that occur in the classroom.

In the discussion on teacher training with a view to including in their studies Santos says:

Pedagogy is the only upper-level course that has theoretical tools and experience in training teachers in special education and regular education, able to "consecrate" a training consistent with the assumptions proposed by the Inclusive Education. (2002, p.37).

As shown in the studies of the author (2006), to this end, the Faculty of Education needs to review its history in teacher education, since it maintained a segregated approach, excluding special education from general education. This position reveals a posture which obeys the same nuances of the treatment by society to people with disabilities.

Intera that training for teachers working with disabled people was created with the Proof in Special Education in 1973, driven by the creation of CENESP (National Center for Special Education), until then, this happened in middle level education. This upper-level course was characterized by belonging to the private network and be an evening course.

Thus, the Brazilian government delegated and the initial training of teachers for special education to private schools, relieving himself of his responsibility. For Santos (2002, p.38) "that these characteristics are still present in the contemporary context, showing how public policies dealing with the training of teachers for working with students with disabilities."

According to the author (2002), in the 80's, the Faculty of Education went through a transformation process, aiming to search for an identity, since this was in crisis, because in the 70's it was configured which formed as a course in technical education, with a total disconnection between theory and practice.

In search of a new identity, pedagogy course turns to teaching, taking the training of teachers to work in Early Childhood Education in the early grades of elementary school and the Magisterium of high school.

Still on the studies of Santos (2002), they show that, parallel to the debate surrounding the pedagogy course, were the first post-graduate courses in Special Education in Brazil. In the late 80s and the 90s, beginning the first productions of the Masters and Doctorate in Special Education, which provided a survey of data that reveals the reality of the situation of education for pupils with disabilities "in the country.

Meanwhile, the proposal of Inclusive Education gains strength, Brazil has begun to orient their policies for the education of persons with special needs, trying to meet the commitments of the Declaration on Education For All (1990) and the Declaration of Salamanca ( 1994), promoted by international agencies such as UNESCO and the UN, which guide the public policies of education in developing countries said. Santos (2002, p.39) confirms that "the extent to which the proposal passed on Inclusive Education to incorporate the public policy of the Brazilian educational system, first experiences of curriculum change began to hasten by teaching courses in some universities."

However, these changes have not significantly include the proposal for Inclusive Education, occurring more adjustments in relation to the extinction of education and creation of others, trying to meet the requirements of the new LDB/96. For Santos (2002, p. 39) "Overall, the most you can about the education of students with disabilities in the Faculty of Education, was the offering of the course" Special Education "in some universities who dared to implement new skills."

What's critical pedagogy course takes more consistently the initial training of teachers for inclusive education, and thereby rescue the historic debt in relation to education of persons with special needs, which throughout history has been placed side. Santos, citing Bueno emphasizes:

With respect to a policy of teacher education, we are far from achieving minimum levels of quality to achieve an inclusive education, not for lack of general conditions, but for lack of political will by both government agencies and by institutions training, especially universities.

(Santos, apud BUENO, 2002, p.56).

What is increasingly clear is that one can not invest only in the quantitative increase of caring for people with disabilities, the quality of care is crucial not to exclude the inclusion. And the teacher as one of the actors in this process, needs are aware of its social and political development, which should start from your training.

The new paradigm of education, influenced by the ideas of inclusion, outlines a new profile as an educator. Pietro (2006, p. 60) stresses that:

Any training plan should be for teachers to become better at teaching the whole school demands. Thus, his knowledge must go beyond accepting that the class is common for students with special needs, a mere space of socialization.

(2006, p.60).

Thus, teacher education that aims to provide the teacher a greater awareness about the inclusion process, should have as one of its pillars the assumption that school is a space in which everyone has the capacity to learn. Some were more specific than others. Mantoan (2006, p. 30) points to the "need for all levels of training courses for teachers must undergo changes in their curriculum, so that future teachers learn teaching practices appropriate to the differences."

Freitas consistent with Mantoan on teacher training, said:

Teacher education should occur in the view of inclusive education, the training of specialists, but also as part of general training of education professionals, who must act in order to restructure their teaching to the process of educational inclusion.

(Freitas, 2006, p. 173)

The authors propose a training foundation with the principles of Inclusive Education, expected to bring profound changes in teaching courses, if you really follow the tenets of inclusion.

Denari (2002) notes that the Guidelines for Special Education in Basic Education, CNE / CEB No. 2, 2001, foresees the need for teachers with the following responsibilities:

Paragraph 1. (...) Article 18 are considered trained teachers to work in classrooms with students who have special educational needs, proving that those in their training, mid-level or above were included content on appropriate special education and skills development values ​​for:

I-see special educational needs of students and enhance inclusive education;

II-flexible pedagogical action in different areas of knowledge appropriate to the special learning needs;

III-continuously evaluate the effectiveness of the educational process to meet special educational needs.

IV-Act as a team, including specialist teachers in special education.

These are general guidelines, which somehow delineate a profile of teachers for inclusive education, however, continues to demonstrate the separation of training for general and special education, the author discusses this polarization and comments:

No doubt the proposal for an inclusive school presupposes a revolution in traditional systems of teacher training, general or special. A unified system of education requires us to abandon the classical separation to seek an integration of knowledge from both systems. For this, teacher training education has to be more specialized to meet the diversity of students, recommending the inclusion of subjects or related subjects in different training courses that address, even minimally, the field of EE.

(Denaro, 2006, p. 59)

Students can not leave the Pedagogy graduate without the slightest knowledge about Inclusive Education, is the glaring lack of commitment of the institutions responsible for teacher education in relation to this issue. It seems there is a casualness in regard to the educational reality of the moment, as if the inclusion does not exist, and professionals do not need any kind of knowledge regarding the principles that guide the Inclusive Education. Contrary to this, Rodriguez points out that what matters in teacher education is:
Knowing the differences yes, but to promote inclusion and not to justify segregation. Knowing the most common differences that are certainly more numerous. Finally, they get to know the difference by highlighting the "pathology" psychological or educational, that contribute to that future teachers have a rough understanding that allows you to start your research process on the best strategies for this student to integrate and learn in school .

(RODRIGUES, 2006, p. 38).

As the author points out, it is necessary that the student of Pedagogy intere about the diversity of students who will encounter at school, students with different ways of learning, some with special needs, which will require further studies.

Already Skliar departs somewhat from the question of teacher training, specialized or general, for inclusion, he analyzes with fear the proposals for this training. Indicates that there may be a shallowness on the subject, and that students acquire a rational discourse only in the inclusion, without changes in posture and continue with segregationist practices. Skliar causes:

The question is: is it necessary or not to create or reinvent a rational discourse, technical, specialized on that other "specific" being called to inclusion? My answer is, with all emphasis that might give her, not in any way: it does not require a rational discourse on deafness, for example, to relate to the deaf do not need a technical device about the mentally disabled to relate to the so-called "mentally handicapped" and so on.

(2006, p. 31)

The main argument of teachers in relation to the process of inclusion is that they are not prepared to work with students who have disabilities. Skliar (2006, p.31) rejects this position and says that "there is no consensus about what it means to" be prepared "and even less about how the training should be thinking about policies of inclusion in any proposed world ".

Thus, the author raises a big question, how is this training? He proposes a review of teacher education from the perspective of inclusion, however, did not have a clear idea of ​​how this can be done.

Denari despite the issue of teacher education as a priority, says:

Addressing the issue of teacher education in EE is a question punctuated by difficulties not only when one takes into account the diversity of opinions adopted in different realities, but also by the plurality of models and qualifications that focus on it.

(2006, p. 38).

Given the difficulties, it is essential to reflect on what the the importance occupied by Inclusive Education in the process of teacher training. What can be done to reduce or overcome the dichotomy between general education courses and a specialist? How to incorporate the two teams and create a new structure, without canceling each other? It is this imbalance that inclusion leads to sound, it makes us reconsider all the hitherto immutable practices and accepted. What is taught? What is learning? How do you evaluate different ways of learning? How to help a student who does not meet the normal standards imposed by society? And my practice, to what extent it is exclusive?

The teacher needs to know what the law contemplates, in order to be aware of what's happening in the legal field, and how they can be charged by public bodies which propagates in the law. Much is said about inclusion, but what is known is a part of the law that determines the entry of persons with disabilities in regular education. It runs to comply with this law, but did not struggle for a better inclusion.

This type of design, according to Carvalho leads to a misreading of what the school enrollment. The author identifies the following limitations:

suppose it is a specific topic of special education;
believe that the proposal is directed only to students with disabilities or conduct typical of neurological syndromes, psychiatric or psychologic injury;
assume that students of high ability / gifted students are not subject to the proposed inclusion of school;
require clinical diagnosis to promote inclusion of disabled people into mainstream education;
assert that the inclusion paradgma "trumps" the integration:
disregard for the basic needs of any student learning, generalizing these needs and / or assigning them to individual's problem;
inclusion confused with integration;
emphasis on inclusion, inter-personal relationships (socialization) rather than cognitive;
limited to "read" world into the classroom, that is, suppose that inclusion is an end in itself, when in fact it is a continuous and ongoing process that involves family, school, neighborhood, community .. .
(CARVALHO, 2004, p.86).

Thus, the farther away the principles of inclusion and public policies that guide its implementation, the greater the superficiality of practicing teacher, who took his training base to think and act in view of inclusion. Not only are these skills needed for effective school inclusion, but is the beginning of an awareness of the process.

Tessaro citing Godfrey demonstrates firmness in his position as teacher training and emphasizes:

... Reform is indispensable in the training of teachers who must learn to identify and meet the special learning needs of all children, youth and adults with disabilities or not. (Tessaro, apud, Godfrey, 2005, p. 49).

There is a defense of a training that meets the new demands of the inclusion process. The authors make clear that the discussion does not turn on it just about learning for children with disabilities, but to qualify as a teacher in front of the heterogeneity of the educational process.

The news shows that the formulas prefabricated forming part of traditional education do not correspond with the new demands of current historical period. The new paradigm of education brings the appreciation of differences, one must respect the individual as a unique being, so the teachers can no longer rely on the homogeneity of methods.

The changes in the training of teachers need to provide a preparation that addresses theoretical and methodological issues, capable of effecting the inclusion school. As ratified Tessaro citing Tesini and Manzini:

... Improving the training of teachers from regular schools in relation to special educational needs, the definition of a policy that will support the principles and practices for special educational needs, creating uniform rules on equal opportunities for disabled people - physical, intellectual, social, emotional, linguistic or other-and develop a pedagogy that fits the needs of each child, instead of every child to adapt to the supposed principles about the pace and nature of the educational process. (2005, p. 2005).

The unpreparedness of teachers is one of the most discussed in the process of school inclusion, and named as one of the main obstacles to inclusive education of quality. Regarding this question the author comments that:

... Studies show that teachers mostly are not consulted, much less prepared to receive in their classrooms of students with disabilities, and they feel insecure, anxious and helpless about their professional development. (Tessaro, 2005, p. 52).

If this is one of the difficulties for a real school inclusion, why has not sought a teacher training able to realize this deficiency? As pressure on public bodies to ensure quality in teacher training? How does the inclusion stimulates changes in public policies for teacher training? The extent to which universities are giving priority to teacher training in the perspective of inclusion?

What matters most in the process of training is to develop a critical awareness of the teacher on the learning of their students, whether disabled or not. As recommended Gazineu:

Teacher education is characterized as a fundamental, that the inclusion does occur, thus changing the reality of special education in the country, wiping out prejudices and broadening horizons.

In education the main goal is to satisfy the specific needs of each child's learning, encouraging it to learn and develop their potential, based on their particular reality. This requires, among teachers, higher sensitivity and critical thinking about their teaching. This pedagogical practice should aim to intellectual autonomy, moral and social development of their students. From the inclusion movement teacher must have the ability to cope with the different, overcoming prejudices against minorities. (2006, p. 2).

This quote demonstrates how teacher education must improve to really contemplate the assumptions of inclusive education. It is also clear that the proposed training is very deep, for it seeks to break old stuffiness in relation to learning, and challenges the teacher to look at the difference in a new light. Importantly, the vision has been impaired is imbued with the prejudices that permeate the social imaginary. See its potential in the subject is an essential requirement for the teacher to play an inclusive classroom.

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